Alloy Metals Company has developed, planned and contracted many creative ways to forge titanium, stainless steel and aluminum parts with our clients and vendors. The tactical material initiatives include the purchasing of ingot, convert it to billet, then forge it to finish/ final part per our customer design. This program can save our customer between 14-16 weeks of lead time. Our regular forging lead time is 6-8 weeks. We also can save customer money based on long term agreement program (LTA). Please contact us for additional information how we can save your company money and time.

Protective Coatings
for Titanium During Forging



Alloy Metals Company has developed, planned and contracted many creative ways to forge titanium, stainless steel and aluminum parts with our clients and vendors.

The tactical material initiatives include the purchasing of ingot, convert it to billet, then forge it to finish/ final part per our customer design. This program can save our customer between 14-16 weeks of lead time. Our regular forging lead time is 6-8 weeks. We also can save customer money based on long term agreement program (LTA). Please contact us for additional information how we can save your company money and time.

The Effect of Forging
Temperatures on Micro-structure



Titanium and titanium alloys must be protected from contamination by oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon during heating for forging.This is most effectively done by coating the forging slugs in a liquid glaze or glass

which is allowed to dry before heating for forging. The coating fuses at between 500 and 600°C forming a viscous surface which protects the material from contamination. The proprietary liquid glass coatings have lubricating properties which assist metal flow during forging. Some forgers have found that the addition of a liquid based graphite to the die surface further improves die life and metal flow.

Strain Rates
and Forgeability



Variations in strain rate have little influence on forge-ability of alpha and alpha plus beta alloys. Both alloy types are readily forge-able in hammers or presses.

The beta alloy Ti13V11Cr3Al also exhibits good forge-ability in both presses and hammers when forged above 1400°F. However when forged just below 1400°C the alpha phase begins to precipitate and the alloy is more susceptible to cracking, particularly in drop-hammer-forging.

The Effect of Forging
Temperatures on Forging Loads



The forging temperature of titanium alloys is absolutely critical to the process and die heating is essential, as excessive heat losses through the tooling will produce defective forgings. As an example of the effect of temperatures titanium alloy Ti6Al4V when forged at

1725°F requires the same forging load as SAE4340 steel forged at 2660°F. At 1600°F forging data indicates that Ti6Al4V requires twice the forging load of SAE4340 steel. Most forging companies advise that Ti6Al4V requires 1.5 to 2 times the equipment capacity needed for forging alloy steels in comparable shapes. The marked effect of forging temperature on the forging load required for Ti6Al4V is characteristic of titanium alloys in general. Thus in ordinary die forging operations, cooling of the work-piece has a more detrimental effect on forging load for titanium than for steel.

Contamination
During Forging



Despite the protection offered by the glass coating, a small amount of contamination does occur and must be removed by grinding or chemical etching.

When forging titanium, care should be taken to prevent contact with steel scale. A thermal type reaction can occur and seriously damage a forging die. Apparently the titanium reduces iron oxide in an exothermic reaction set off by pressure and high temperature.

Straightening of
Titanium Forgings



Because of the low elastic modulus and relatively high strength of titanium alloys, forgings are difficult to cold straighten either by coining or reverse bending.

Such operations are usually done at temperatures between 716-986°F. At times it is necessary to maintain a straightening load on a forging for several seconds. This technique is especially useful for removing large warp ages.

Summary


The production of close tolerance, precision titanium alloy forgings has been successfully practised. However, such factors as excessive die wear, the need for expensive tooling, problems of microstructural control and contamination make the cost of close forgings excessive. Metallurgical quality is sometimes compromised if several dies are needed to produce a forging. Successful precision forging, therefore, is confined to small forgings such as blades and fittings that do not have complex flow patterns.

Source: Engineering Materials Handbook, 5th Edition

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